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How Much Do You Know About Implant Materials?
Jul 13, 2018

The material of artificial dental implant should be embedded in human bone tissue for a long time, which requires high biological and physical properties.

Bio-Ceramics

The biological ceramics used for dental implant are mainly divided into bioactive ceramics and inert ceramics.

Bioactive ceramics include hydroxyapatite ceramics, bioactive glass ceramics, calcium phosphate glass ceramics and so on. This kind of material has good biocompatibility, and is very similar to the inorganic composition in human bone tissue, when it is implanted in living bone tissue, it can organically bind with bone tissue, and participates in the metabolism of bone tissue to promote the growth of bone tissue. The biological inert ceramics mainly refers to the single crystal alumina and so on, this kind of material strength is big, the stability is good, in the body basically does not have the obvious chemical change, may form the stable interface with the implantation area organization.

Metal 

At present, the raw materials of several dental implant systems widely used in clinic are pure titanium or titanium alloy. Titanium because it is very easy to form oxide film on the surface of TiO2, characterized by an inert interface state, the existence of the oxidation layer, has played an organic tissue and inorganic implant conversion layer role.

Tengvell that butyl Tio2 can partly form a tiooh matrix, the matrix may inhibit the production of superoxide products in the inflammation and thus prevent the release of hydrogen and oxygen ions, so that the titanium system implant in the implant region to maintain a stable and compatible relationship. The mechanical strength of titanium is very high, and its elastic modulus is very different from that of natural bone tissue, so the design of artificial dental implant should be given proper consideration to reduce the stress concentration of the interface. Cobalt-chromium alloy because of its easy to process and good corrosion resistance, commonly used in the replacement of artificial hip, but because of the poor biocompatibility of cobalt-chromium alloy, when planted in the blood-rich jaw or muscle tissue, local foreign body giant cell parcels, and can be long-term existence, so the current dental implant has not used this type of metal as a implant.

Carbon material 

Carbon material has good biocompatibility and mechanical properties, and its elastic modulus is similar to bone tissue, but its use is limited due to the influence of material color.

Polymer materials 

Mainly include acrylic ester, PTFE, polysulfone, polymer materials in vivo micro-environment is extremely unstable, there are a lot of components decomposition, degradation, affect the local tissue cell response, and even a systemic response can occur. It was observed that local histological slices showed a large number of macrophages and other inflammatory cells in the interface, and a thicker fibrous membrane was wrapped.


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